At home, I have a server that I use for all sorts of random things, and because I like to complicate things (just ask Zach, he knows), I run a bunch of VMs inside of the server, to keep unrelated things separate from each other. I’ve worked on this over time, fixing pain points and bottlenecks, and currently have it so I can spin up a new VM in about a minute (with the help of Ansible). Here’s how it all currently works.
On the host, I have all the things installed required for KVM virtualization (qemu, libvirt, virtualization-tools, probably some others – I really need to get the hypervisor config into Ansible…). I use LVM to manage all of the storage volumes for guests. I have a volume group (vg_vps) on the host, and inside of that, a bunch of logical volumes. Each logical volume gets mounted as the disk drive for each guest.
Initially, the process to create a new VM was slow and painful – I’d create the new logical volume, attach it to the VM, and also attach a CentOS installation ISO to the VM, boot, manually install CentOS… It was a pain. Over the past week, I worked on getting a base image setup that I can clone new VMs from rather than having to do the manual installation step, and the time savings are awesome.
Creating the Base Image
Creating the base image was very similar to just spinning up any other VM. First, I created a new logical volume, but this time, made it pretty small (4GB) to keep the clone time as quick as possible, and then booted the VM with the installation ISO. I named the logical volume after the CentOS version, so that I know what version I’m working with (centos7_1511). I installed CentOS, made sure the network interfaces start automatically, and configured partitions for the guest (I use LVM inside the guest as well, mostly because that’s what the installer wanted to do, and I didn’t want to fight it – It’s probably not really necessary). Once installed, I loaded up the OS, installed my public key and turned off SELinux. Then, I just shut off the VM, deleted it (but made sure NOT to delete the logical volume) and I have my base image!
Creating a VM
Once I have the base image, creating a new VM is easy.
- First, I create a new logical volume that is at least 4GB
lvcreate --size=30G --name=mynewvm vg_vps
- Once I have that, I copy the base image to the new logical volume with the virt-resize tool
virt-resize --expand vda2 /dev/vg_vps/centos7_1511 /dev/vg_vps/mynewvm.
In this command, vda2 is the partition *inside* the VM that you want to expand (in my case, vda1 is just /boot, and vda2 contains everything else).
- Then, I remove anything specific to the base VM (like network configurations, ssh-hostkeys, log files, mail spool, cron-spool, etc).
virt-sysprep -a /dev/vg_vps/mynewvm --enable=cron-spool,dhcp-client-state,dhcp-server-state,logfiles,mail-spool,net-hwaddr,rhn-systemid,ssh-hostkeys,udev-persistent-net,utmp,yum-uuid,customize
At this point, you just associate the “mynewvm” logical volume with a new VM definition, and you have a fully working VM.
Remember above when I said I use LVM inside the guest? Turns out there is one more step you have to do to actually expand the guest filesystem because of this, that I don’t think you’d otherwise have to do. To work around this, I created a script in my base image (/root/growfs.sh). Here’s what’s in the script:
#!/bin/bash # Expands the vda2 filesystem to fill up the available space # Does *NOT* expand the actual partition - assuming this is done with virt tools on the host side echo "Expanding Physical Volume" pvresize /dev/vda2 echo "Expanding Logical Volume centos-root" lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/mapper/centos-root echo "Growing filesystem" xfs_growfs /
To make sure I don’t forget to run it, I also have ansible setup the script to be run at boot, again using the virt-sysprep tool (This tool is seriously really handy)
virt-sysprep -a /dev/vg_vps/mynewvm --firstboot-command /root/growfs.sh